1.1 Sectoral Policy The Philippines has passed the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA), aimed at strengthening the agriculture and fishery sectors, through modernization, greater participation of small-holders, food security and food self-sufficiency, private sector participation and people empowerment.
The current agriculture program Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (Golden Harvest) is a transitional blueprint for implementing the AFMA, focusing on food security and poverty alleviation, with planning devolved to Local Government Units (LGUs) and other stakeholders.
The main development goals and objectives for the livestock sector under this program are to: narrow the gap between per capita nutritional requirement and actual per capita consumption of food commodities of animal origin; make accessible, available and affordable livestock and livestock products through increases in the overall livestock production and improvement in livestock production coefficients; provide farmers accessibility to resources, support services, and infrastructures; ensure that the livestock enterprise is compatible with the preservation of the ecosystem; transform the local livestock industry from a resource-based to technology-based industry; and enhance the market competitiveness of the local livestock and poultry sub-sector.
1.2 Livestock and Poultry Resources
Livestock and poultry production is a very important and rapidly expanding component of the Philippine agricultural economy. Animal husbandry is a major activity in rural areas and a primary source of income for many smallholders, who own and manage the great majority of the country`s livestock and poultry resources, as indicated Table 1.
The proportion of smallholder producers, however, varies considerably, both within and between regions; and the number larger scale, commercial piggeries and poultry farms has increased in some areas in recent years (Costales et al., 2003; and Delgado et al., 2008).
Seventy-one percent of the pig population are kept by smallholders, but larger scale, commercial farms are increasingly rapidly in the country`s major pig producing areas, such as Region III and IVA around Metro Manila in Central Luzon, where local commercial farm inventories have now matched, if not surpassed, backyard pig inventories.
Commercial poultry production has also increased progressively over the years and commercial farms now account for more than half (51.5%) of the total inventory of birds.
For the latest situation reports and statistics on the animal production in the Philippines, visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) website: http://www.bas.gov.ph/
1.2.1. Temporal Trends in Livestock and Poultry Populations 2000-09
Rafi to provide summary table of livestock and poultry statistics 2000-2009
1.2.2. Spatial Distribution of Livestock and Poultry Populations in 2009
Rafi to provide individual species distribution maps for Carabao, Cattle, Pigs, Goats, Chickens and Ducks; and percentage backyard production for pigs and poultry.
1.3 Problems/Issues to be Addressed
Animal production in the Philippines is characterized by a mix, or mosaic of smallholder, semi-intensive and large scale livestock enterprises in peri-urban areas. With increasing urbanisation, there is also a scaling up of broiler and swine production to meet food demand from the increasing human population that are moving towards urban centres.
Social conflicts have arisen over the location of large scale livestock production close to residential centres. Pollution control regulations are being targeted at large scale livestock producers in some areas by organisations, such as the Laguna Lake Development Authority, and are being extended to include smallholdings.
Zoning regulations, intended to promote the relocation of livestock enterprises to remoter, more sparsely inhabited areas have been generally ineffective. It is particularly difficult for smallholders to comply with such regulations, and as a consequence they are widely ignored. The net result has been that small to medium scale production facilities are often located in close proximity to human settlement, with obvious adverse consequence for animal and human health, hygiene, food safety, animal welfare and the environment.